Category Archives: Seminary

Hebrew Aleph Bet Song and Vowel Song

Cheryl and I have just started learning Hebrew this year at SMBC. To keep things fun we’ve been using a variety of methods. We learned the Hebrew consonants using this song we found online (here’s us singing it):

Then we came to the pointed vowels (they’re similar to pinyin in Chinese, but in dot/dash form). We couldn’t find a memory song that went through all the Hebrew vowels in our Elementary Biblical Hebrew textbook (Athas and Young)… so I played around with the words from Carole Grover’s song and we came up with this:

Sing to the tune of “Arise My Soul Arise.”

LYRICS

A pair of eyes: tsere

A bar below: patakh

A T-shape is qamets

Or called qamets khatuf

Three dots that make a smile: segol

But if three dots swoop down: qibbuts

We’re halfway through the vowel song

A dot beneath: khireq

That dot on top: kholem

Inside a waw: shuruq

Two dots below: shewa

One dot and yod makes khireq-yod

Three dots and yod makes segol-yod

Those are the Hebrew vowels in song

Hope it’s useful to other budding Hebrew learners, young and old!

Interview: Dr Janson Condren talks about bible translations and the original meaning of Genesis 3:16b

Why do Bible translations get updated? How and why might a translation change over history? What’s the best way to translate a difficult phrase? Given the plethora of English translations available today, the differences between them can be confusing and sometimes contested among Christians.

In 2017, Dr Janson Condren, Senior Lecturer of OT at Sydney Missionary & Bible College, published his research into the original meaning of Genesis 3:16b – a verse which underwent a controversial translation change in the 2016 edition of the ESV translation. It was the lead article of the September 2017 issue of the Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. [1]

Originally from Ohio, USA, Janson received his M.Div. and Th.M from Baptist Bible Seminary in Pennsylvania (1996, 1998), and his Ph.D. in Theological Studies (Old Testament emphasis) from Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Chicago (2005).

I had the privilege of studying under Janson last year, and what he shared on this topic during a lecture piqued my interest. I caught up with him recently for an interview.

(Note: This interview has been edited for clarity and length.)


1. Tell us a bit about yourself.

I’m a child of God and a follower of Jesus. I was raised in a Baptist church and a Christian home from a very young age. I remember sitting in Year 3 Sunday School and a visiting missionary explaining what she did, and thinking: “I guess I’m going to be a missionary.” When I finally went to Bible College, I was encouraged to think more about theological education, as most mission fields ask to be given tools to understand and teach the Bible. At the same, I was getting excited about the nitty-gritty aspects of academics and biblical interpretation. I was overwhelmed by how much I didn’t know, and what I hadn’t been taught in church – especially from the Old Testament.

2. How long have you worked at SMBC and what do you teach?

We’ve just finished up 12 years. I teach Hebrew, and a whole range of Old Testament books – the Prophets, the Writings, the Pentateuch.

3. Earlier this year you published a journal article detailing your research into Genesis 3:16b. How long did you spend on this project?

I had study leave from college (in Semester 2 of 2016), so had several months to work on this.

4. What motivated you to spend half a year studying half a verse?

It was right in the time that the ESV 2016 translation update was issued, and they changed the wording of Gen 3:16b from: “Your desire will be for your husband” to “Your desire will be contrary to your husband” – a very abrupt change making it mean the opposite of what it had meant. Right after that, they issued a public statement saying that the ESV was now to be frozen for all time, never to be adjusted again (Ed: the decision was later reversed). That perked my own interest: that a translation committee would cease to improve their translation, especially when new research and discoveries are coming out on a regular basis. It was a surprising move on top of a surprising change.

5. In the abstract of your article, you mention that an adversarial view of Gen 3:16 (i.e. a desire for the wife to contend with her husband for leadership) is “seriously misguided”. Could you share why?

Firstly – it’s a very recent interpretation. The ESV is following the NLT and the NET translations. All of them are building on a trend in interpretation since the mid-1970s when Susan T. Foh put forward this view. Now it’s not always the case that a new interpretation is wrong, but it needs to be adopted very carefully. As I scratched beneath the surface, what I found was before the 1970s, there was no precedent for understanding the woman’s desire as adversarial. The idea that the woman’s desire is contrary to her husband seems to be a completely new idea in the history of interpretation.

6. Let’s walk through some of the other points in your article, arguing against the adversarial view. First you examined how Gen 4:7, which the adversarial reading of Gen 3:16 relies on, has some major interpretive difficulties. Can you explain more?

In Gen 4:7, sin is personified as “crouching at the door”, and its desire is for Cain, and it’s not affectionate there. The same word for desire (Heb. tešūqâ) is used there, as in Gen 3:16. The grammar and syntax of the two texts is strikingly similar. So there’s good reason to relate the texts together.

But to say the adversarial desire in Gen 4:7 is reason for seeing the woman’s desire as adversarial against her husband, like sin’s desire against Cain, runs into serious difficulties. That’s because the interpretation of Gen 4:7 itself is highly debated throughout history.

7. In what ways?

For example, Matthew Henry sees the word sin not to mean a “door demon”, crouching at the door, but to mean a sin offering. There’s no adversarial desire there.

Also, where it says “its desire is for you”, the pronoun “its” is masculine, whereas the noun “sin” is feminine. In Hebrew, those are supposed to agree in gender. So many would say “its desire” is not sin’s desire, but a masculine noun in context, such as Abel.

So I would question whether we can base this brand new view of Gen 3:16 on Gen 4:7, a text around which there’s all this debate.

8. Next you conducted a detailed survey of the translation and interpretation of the key word (Heb. tešūqâ) throughout history. From reading early translations such as the Septuagint, early Church and Jewish writings, and the use of the term in writings outside the Bible, what did you find?

The vast majority of all translations and interpretations of this term – in Gen 3:16, 4:7 and in Song of Songs 7:10 – do not read it as “desire” at all, but rather as something more like “return”. All the way back to the Septuagint (200 BC), in Jewish sources like the Book of Jubilees, through the first several hundred years after Christ, it’s understood to mean “return”. It’s only from 300-400 AD that the interpretation “desire” starts showing up in Jewish sources. In Christian texts, the interpretation “desire” doesn’t show up until the 1500’s.

But that’s not the most striking thing. In the Dead Sea Scrolls, the word appears in texts unrelated to Gen 3:16 or other passages where the term is used. So that provides an objective test case, outside the Bible, for what the meaning of this word is. And there’s good evidence there that it means “return” as well. For instance, in a lament poem about humanity’s insignificance (Ed: 1QS 11:21-22), the word has been translated as: “Your desire is for dust”. But considering the context, it would make more sense not as “desiring for dust” but “returning to dust”.

9. So if the original meaning is indeed “return”, then how exactly should we understand Gen 3:16b?

My initial guess is that it would have to do with a return towards the wife’s original relationship with the husband, an effort to recapture the original intimacy that God created the man and the woman to have in the Garden. The intimacy was lost because of the Fall, but there’s a deep need to return to it, and the woman wants to recapture that. I don’t think it’s primarily a sexual movement towards her husband, although that would be included. It’s the farthest away from an adversarial movement against her husband.

10. So if you were on the ESV Translation Committee, what would you do with this verse?

More study needs to be put into it before we abruptly change a translation! But I would change it back to an affectionate desire, because the adversarial desire most definitely does not fit with “return”. In the end, my proposal of “return” isn’t strikingly different to what we have in most translations with “desire for”. But where “desire” is usually seen as sexual, “return” helps to make a broader point.

11. As you mentioned earlier, the ESV 2016 translation made the adversarial reading the official one last year. One scholar (Scott Mcknight) alleges that it was a “stealth translation” which was “sneaked into the text of the ESV for ideological reasons.” (Ed: see also Denny Burk’s response) Do you think that’s fair? Does an adversarial view bolster a specific understanding of gender relations?

I’m not sure if I’m well-equipped to answer that. But there are people on both sides of the egalitarian-complementarian debate who have adopted this “adversarial desire” reading. So I’m not sure if it necessarily bolsters one or the other, though it does seem to go hand-in-hand with the complementarian viewpoint.

I don’t know if it’s because the woman’s desire contrary to her husband then needs to be met with an equal and opposite reaction from the husband – “and he shall rule over you”. There’s a tendency in the complementarian camp to want to see this rule as the way it needs to be, or should be. This research certainly detracts from that interpretation.

12. Some of us might only come across this change when we open up our bibles to teach Sunday School or lead a bible study. For those of us who don’t know Hebrew, or all this history of interpretation, should a change like this freak us out? How should we respond as Christians?

I don’t know if it’s need for worry at all – it’s only a need for a greater understanding of the process. God has revealed himself to us through the Scriptures, but in this fallen world we live in, we don’t necessarily have perfect access to that revelation.

For example, my wife can tell me very clearly to do something, and I can easily miss what she said and go off in another direction. That doesn’t mean my wife’s at fault or there’s a huge problem in our relationship! But we have to recognise that we’re not perfect, I’m not perfect. The interpreter is fallen, and we’re taking strides to improve, but we haven’t arrived at perfection this side of heaven.

It’s helpful to understand that we don’t have a perfect translation – it’s an imperfect effort to capture the original Hebrew. We’ve got good scholars working on that, and it’s 99% worked out. But there are these little bits that are still being debated, and this happens to be one of them. This is one of the more extraordinary cases where a translation committee completely flipped the meaning of a verse 180 degrees based on very recent scholarship.

13. All this work certainly testifies to a deep love for knowing the Scriptures better. Any encouragement for us as we read the Old Testament and try to understand it for ourselves?

Hopefully it’s an encouragement to take seriously the details. We might not have perfect knowledge, but the details do matter. Verbal plenary inspiration means every word is God’s intended revelation for us, and it’s worth our time and effort to wrestle with the details.

Yet our inability to completely grasp it should encourage all of us to come on our knees before the text. Bow in humility before sacred writ: God has revealed Himself, but we are unable to completely grasp it ourselves. We have enough – everything we need for life and godliness. But if we kept in mind how much we lacked, it would keep us very humble. So there’s little room for arrogance in these debates, and the heat we generate is unnecessary and moves against the nature of this enterprise.

 

Reference:

[1] Janson Condren, “Toward a Purge of the Battle of the Sexes and ‘Return’ for the Original Meaning of Genesis 3:16b”, JETS 60/2 (2017): 227–45.


Theological education a waste of time?

A. T. Robertson writes:

If theological education will increase your power for Christ, is it not your duty to gain that added power? … Never say you are losing time by going to school. You are saving time, buying it up for the future and staring it away. Time used in storing power is not lost.

Encouraging words as we begin Year 2 of study at Sydney Missionary and Bible College this morning. So grateful for this opportunity to increase in power for Christ.

(To any worried staff, don’t worry: the flag in the photo isn’t a permanent fixture!)

2017 Year in Review: discovering Sydney trains, discovering ourselves

It was one of those glorious late summer mornings in Sydney – clear enough to go exploring under a brilliant blue sky, and enough cloud cover to fend off oven temperatures. We set off with the aim of exploring some part of our new home city. A friend suggested we try some desserts at Lakemba, so off we went.

Waiting at the train platform with anticipation, one of our girls piped up: “Hey, we should go visit every train station in Sydney!”

A simple request kickstarted a family project that, 68 stations later, still brings beautiful sights, culinary delights, and God-given insights about communities, journeying together, and living life as people “passing through”.

Station #15: Circular Quay

Sydney is beautiful. But it’s a beauty that goes beyond the postcard-quality harbour views at Circular Quay and Milson’s Point Stations, or the picturesque entrance into the Blue Mountains at Emu Plains. There’s also a raw, unscripted beauty in seeing crowds hustle between platforms at Central Station, the early-morning market shoppers at Flemington Station, and the swirl of grunge and rainbow hairstyles at Newtown Station. There’s also the quiet serenity of sailing towards the Blue Mountains in the quiet carriage, the suburban station that’s synecdoche for home (Croydon), and the experience of walking through a city of gravestones pondering the brevity of life (Lidcombe).

Station #14: Central

Culinary delights – yes! Travelling between Sydney suburbs can seem like sliding between alternate universes. At one stop you’re enjoying hipster brews with yuppies and power-parents (Dulwich Hill), at the next you’re scarfing down dumplings (Ashfield). Try some Indian curry (Harris Park) or Bangladeshi desserts (Lakemba). Slurp some Vietnamese Phở (Cabramatta) or Taiwanese beef noodles (Eastwood). Can’t decide between Asian or Middle Eastern for lunch? Then fill up with both Laotian and Iraqi cuisine either side of Fairfield Station.

Station #51: Cabramatta

Of course, a city is more than its food. Travelling on trains (bikes, buses, ferries too) allows the kind of personal interactions that we often zoom past in our automobile-induced amnesia. After all, it’s only by travelling slowly that you meet complete strangers, hear their stories, and even share Christ with them. In our train station hunt, we’ve met humans of Sydney from all walks of life: people sleeping rough, retired grandparents, fellow parents, tourists, business-people, and other thrill-seeking children. It’s their individual stories that stay in the memory: the grandfather fretting about his grandchildren’s future, or the refugee who’s found job-seeking a racially-discriminatory disappointment, or the man who simply wants the dignity of buying a meal this day.

Station #60: Wentworth Falls

Train networks also serve as etched evidence of our innate inclination to settle in homogenous communities. There are unmistakable trends in who lives where. Upper-middle class families in North Sydney and the Hills, working-class people in the West and Southwest, Koreans in Strathfield, Nepalis in Granville, Lebanese in Punchbowl, Italians in Leichhart. Residents of Sydney who coalesce into ethnic, religious and socioeconomic tribes. Godly unity brings strength. Sinful unity foments mistrust and race riots. In this I’m reminded that Jesus came to break down the dividing wall of hostility by creating in his death on the cross one new man in place of two, so making peace (Eph 2:14-16). In God’s Kingdom there won’t be segregated communities to train through. And even if train lines carve divisions (they talk about the Chinese side and the Korean side of Eastwood, for example), true gospel communities can bridge those divides through the shed blood of Christ.

Station #9: Homebush

Elsewhere, the Apostle Paul shares this well-known line:

“For our citizenship is in heaven, and from it we await a Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ…” (Phil 3:20)

Paul is convinced that standing firm in our heavenly citizenship empowers us to press on towards knowing Christ more.

I think this truth is more vivid this year for us, living life in transition. When you know you’re just passing through somewhere, you’re motivated to make the most of your time: to take photos, try what we can, and come away enriched and grateful. Just as we visit most train stations wondering if we’ll ever come back, we’re making friends, pursuing gospel opportunities, reading and studying, knowing that our season is temporary.

Perhaps here God gives us a parable for the Christian life: if this life isn’t our final destination, if we are just passing through this station, then we should live differently. Spend differently. Read differently. Relate differently. Try things more spontaneously. Share Christ more courageously. Love our fellow sojourners more fervently. Our citizenship in heaven affects our choices on earth.

Station #20: Belmore

Hours separate us from the dawning of 2018. This year has been like no other for the Chongs. We’ve ached for friends departed, and welcomed new ones. Our first year here has pulled at our minds and hearts. Our marriage and parenting has been a fishbowl experience, filled with God’s mercy amidst our failures.

Only the LORD knows all the joys and struggles next year will bring. But one thing’s certain: there’s two more years to go and 110 more stations to visit. I’m not sure if we’ll get to them all. But by God’s grace, our family is certainly richer for the journey.

God of my fathers
Strangers in this country
Pilgrims on these dusty roads
Across the great plains
In the bellies of the steel trains
To stake a new claim in that wilderness of hope

And like my fathers I am looking for a home
I’m looking for a home beyond the sea
So be my God and guide me till I lie beneath these hills
And let the great God of my fathers
Be the great God of my children still

God of My Fathers, Ben Shive

Station #61: Emu Plains


Appendix: Our #sydneytrainhunt journal, Year 1

(The only rules we followed: we needed to visit the actual station and not just pass through, and we needed to take a photo with the station name on it for it to count.)

  1. Arncliffe – Explored this cliffside station while waiting for an airport pickup. Bought a 7-up with label in Arabic. Tasted like normal 7-up.
  2. Ashfield – Ian runs a lovely cafe across the street that does cheap, tasty Malaysian food.
  3. Auburn – H and I enjoyed a “babycino” and some baklava. Street signs a fusion of Lebanese, English and Chinese.
  4. Bankstown – A lovely afternoon catching up with the McMahans.
  5. Belmore – Met George, a lapsed Greek Orthodox who’s lived here for years. Takes the train to Liverpool for work each day.
  6. Blacktown – This was a busy, crowded toilet stop for one of our kids. The $1 slushie was nice.
  7. Bondi Junction – Busy waiting for a bus to Bondi Beach. Could the train not have extended to the seaside?
  8. Burwood – Our starting point for many adventures. The BBQ lamb shop across the road always seems like its on fire with all the smoke coming out.
  9. Cabramatta – Come here and find a special gate, interesting fruits and yummy food. No longer the infamous heroin capital it used to be.
  10. Campsie – Albee’s Kitchen is here. Where else can you get Kuching laksa this good?
  11. Canley Vale – Bought some pork buns for the girls enroute to Cabra-vale Park.
  12. Canterbury – A small square-shaped station we can get to by bike (and bike trailer)
  13. Carlingford – We came here to attend Michael Abel’s memorial service.
  14. Central – The grand concourse with its high dome and giant Victorian-era clock feels like a scene from the movies.
  15. Chatswood – Met Amelia and the twins here! The largest shopping mall complex we’ve ever seen.
  16. Circular Quay – Postcard views of the Sydney Harbour. Tourists galore. Lunch on the Opera House steps is great.
  17. Clyde – We walked here from Granville Memorial Park once and the girls had fun hiding inside a pole.
  18. Concord West – Took H here and cycled around Olympic Park reserve. Easier to access the Brick Pit Ring Walk from this station.
  19. Croydon – We went for a walk from home one day and 20 minutes later we reached our closest station.
  20. Denistone – Walked past a house auction – $2 million for a full-section 4-bedroom house.
  21. Dulwich Hill – Came here for some fish and chips. Plenty of fancy food places here.
  22. Eastwood – Went to the Taiwan Night Market for dinner.
  23. Emu Plains – Got off to view the Blue Mountains from Sydney’s vantage point. Nearly got fined for forgetting to tap on again!
  24. Epping – We got off here on the way to Carlingford once. Big screen TV ad hangs over the pedestrian bridge.
  25. Erskineville – H and W walked here from Macdonaldtown Station. A few bikes passed us on the way.
  26. Fairfield – Went to the massive adventure park, and had Laotian crispy fried rice for lunch.
  27. Flemington – The Sydney Markets are here. Rows and rows of stalls, people selling anything and everything: flowers, fruit + veg, garage sale-type stuff.
  28. Gordon – The cafe across the road does Nitro Coffee (cold brew). Wow!
  29. Granville – We found a park with trees that had monkey apples. Nirwan and his mum played with us at the Memorial Playground.
  30. Green Square – Caught up with Greg Cooper for lunch and a yak about church music.
  31. Harris Park – The day they extended the Inner West Line to Paramatta. We got off here and bought some Turkish delight and κεφαλητυρι (head cheese?)
  32. Homebush – E and W found a Russian Saturday school and ate some пирожки (piroshki).
  33. Hurlstone Park – Got off the bus here once enroute to see Jared and Kristy in Marrickville.
  34. Kings Cross – Stopped here to have morning tea on the way to Bondi. Famous Coke sign has been upgraded.
  35. Kogarah – Cycled to Brighton le Sands with E and went home via this station.
  36. Lakemba – A suburb that’s 59% Muslim based on the 2016 census. Bangladeshi sweets were nice, Jasmin’s Lebanese even better. No Christmas tree on the street corner.
  37. Lewisham – This is our stop every Sunday morning to get to church.
  38. Lidcombe – We walked to Rookwood Necropolis from here. One grave was for a child who died at 11 months.
  39. Lindfield – W handed out flyers here while on East Lindfield college mission.
  40. Macdonaldtown – Closest stop to Moore College. Lots of “sleeping trains” here.
  41. Marrickville – Saw a big cargo train roll past here. Met up with Jared and Kristy for lunch in the park.
  42. Martin Place – Brought Ashleigh and Jayana here to go visit the Hyde Park Barracks.
  43. Mascot – Visited Samuel and Sherry in their last week in Oz
  44. Meadowbank – Took the ferry from here to Circular Quay along the Parramatta River.
  45. Milsons Point – Walked across the Harbour Bridge with CJ and Dave
  46. Museum – An old-style underground train station with vintage ads on the walls
  47. Newtown – Burgerfuel here! Also lots of rainbow flags and a very alternative bookstore.
  48. North Strathfield – Komart here has a great range of Korean snacks.
  49. North Sydney – W cycled here one morning. Crossed the Harbour Bridge at dawn.
  50. Olympic Park – Brought Christian here. There was a big fountain where E got very wet!
  51. Parramatta – Wandered around the town square and visited St Johns Cathedral (parish of Samuel Marsden, the “apostle” to Aotearoa New Zealand).
  52. Petersham – Two Fat Greeks does a delicious souvlaki. Also can’t beat Gelato Republic.
  53. Punchbowl – W cycled here one morning. Station looks unwelcoming, Lebanese shopkeeper was the opposite.
  54. Redfern – E and W did a Food Ride with some other cyclists. Had to carry bike and trailer up the stairs.
  55. Rhodes – IKEA is here.
  56. Rydalmere – W cycled to here one morning, went along the southern bank of the Parramatta River.
  57. St James – Came here after exploring Hyde Park with Christian. Has an old-style food bar inside.
  58. St Peters – Came with H to explore Sydney Park on the bike.
  59. Stanmore – School of Theology with Prof Guy Waters at Stanmore Baptist. House prices too high for church members to live here.
  60. Strathfield – The square has a lovely fountain, Jacob makes a great coffee, and lots of people have time to take a tract or talk about Jesus here.
  61. Summer Hill – A trendy place to live. Lots of dogs as pets here. The IGA has a cheese room.
  62. Tempe – W cycles through whenever he takes the Cooks River to Airport route
  63. Town Hall – Came here to attend the ANZAC Day Dawn Service at the Cenopath
  64. Waverton – E and W cycled here one morning, via Harbour Bridge.
  65. Wentworth Falls – We met some Taiwanese grandparents and walked to the Falls together. (This is technically outside Sydney…)
  66. West Ryde – Koorong is here!
  67. Wiley Park – Found a community veggie garden. South Asian women with their children in the playground.
  68. Wynyard – Another stop where people are happy to sit and read about Jesus, if you offer a tract to them. John Dunmore Lang’s statue is here.

Year 1 of our #sydneytrainhunt

Quotes from Semester 1 at Sydney Missionary Bible College, 2017

We’ve just finished our first semester here at Sydney Missionary Bible College, where I’m studying towards a Masters of Divinity.

It’s been exhausting on some fronts – adjusting to life in Australia with a young family, scrambling to build new friendships and relationships, grieving as NZ friends move on with their lives. I don’t think we’ve ever been as sick with colds and flus as this past 6 months.

It’s been enriching on many fronts – drinking from multiple fire hoses gushing with theology, observing examples of godliness, and catching the passion to bring Christ to all the nations – literally. What a special place this is to be prepared for a lifetime of gospel ministry in NZ.

I’ve noted down for posterity what others have said this semester – nuggets of wisdom worth retaining longer than all my ephemeral InstaFaceTweets combined. Most of these were from lectures and chapels; some were from conversations over lunch and dinner with staff and students; a few are quotes from other places. I hope some of them are helpful to you.


Church History: Early Church to 476

“If learning church history doesn’t contribute to your godliness and discipleship, then it hasn’t done its job.” – Stuart Coulton

“The Crusades. Nazi Germany. How could ‘Christians’ do such evil things? They were Christians who failed to critique the values of the world around them.” – S.C.

“We carpet bomb a city to save democracy [Dresden]. Should we kill a man for denying the Trinity [cf. Calvin and Servetus]? Church history gives us provocation and tools to wrestle with these propositions.” – S.C.

“What and where it happened is not as important as why it happened.” – S.C.

“Early Christianity stood out by its holiness. Is our church today known for its quality of life? What difference has Christ made to me?” – S.C.

“You work out what the error is by the way the truth is articulated.” – S.C.

“The difference between an ascetic and and aesthetic comes down to chocolate. The ascetic says no. The aesthetic says, ‘Only Lindt will do.'” – S.C.

“The church sometimes stops at bishops and creeds, but pays lip service to Scripture.” – S.C.

“The church has a need for many things, but what it really needs is good doctrine. We live in a world where pragmatism is the most popular authority. So assume nothing. Go back to Scripture and ask: is this truth biblical?” – S.C.

“Christians in the West treat Revelation in ways that John would be horrified. Does reading Revelation move you to pray for the persecuted church? If not perhaps we’ve missed John’s purpose for the letter.” – Rachel Ciano, Persecution and Apologists

“Fast growth in the early church meant nominal Christians with shallow roots. Christians lived in a time of peace, so were unprepared; many gave themselves up. May it be a lesson to us not to be caught unprepared.” – R.C. on the Edict of 250 AD requiring Christians worship the Roman Emperor.

“‘For the church to be marginalised is not a bad thing. It has better eyes to see from the edges.'” – R.C. paraphrasing Miroslav Volf

“If you’ve found something new that no one has ever thought of before, be careful. People have been thinking about things longer than you.” – R.C.

“One of the greatest things about church history is that you’ll never hero worship anyone. You see their black spots; everyone has feet of clay.” – S.C.

“Don’t write these guys off [early monastics]. Otherwise we’ll have nothing to learn. These monks asked: what does it look like to seriously follow Jesus? Part of me is provoked… How much am I prepared to follow Jesus?” – S.C.

“FF Bruce suggests that the Reformation is all about Augustine’s doctrine of the church colliding with his doctrine of salvation.” – S.C.

“If you find yourself separated from the majority of the church, then show some humility.” – S.C. summarising Augustine’s argument about the church

 

Church History: Middle Ages to Pre-Reformation

“Augustine’s view is that we are dead in our transgressions. Pelagius’s view is that we are not dead in our trangressions. The Bible teaches that you’re a prince [in Christ] and a worm. You’re totally depraved and you’re touched by grace.” – S.C.

“Herulean Oduvacar is the perfect name to drop into a dinner party conversation. He was the first non-Roman to sit on the throne. You think Donald Trump is shocking!” – S.C.

“In the Middle Ages, nobody believed in the separation of church and state. The issue at this time is which side is in charge.” – S.C.

“Don’t defend the Crusades. They are a complete blot on the Christian church.” – S.C.

“We are tempted to promote the cause of Christ using instruments of the world. But Zechariah 4:6 reminds us that it’s ‘not by might, not by power, but by my Spirit.'” – S.C.

“The real outrage with Luther was not that he had beer, but that he got married.” – S.C.

“The priesthood of all believers has politically explosive implications.” – S.C.

“One of the temptations for us is to lack confidence in the power of God’s Word. ‘You need topical. You need something else.’ No – it is the means by which salvation is accomplished.” – S.C.

“Lutheranism today is different to Lutheranism 500 years ago. Calvinism remains influential over the years, perhaps because it left a more systematised doctrine.” – S.C.

“Luther is all about stuffing the ark – ‘get them in’. Calvin wants to transform the ark – ‘sanctify them'”. – R.C., on the difference between Luther and Calvin

“One reason laments have lost their place in today’s worship is that we have a problem with saying ‘God, you did it.’ Withhold nothing from the sovereignty of God.” – R.C.

“Your church building says a lot about your theology.” – R.C. on church architecture

“Most of South America is Roman Catholic because of the Jesuits. While Protestants were infighting, they became a worldwide RCC. Parochialism is the enemy of the gospel. Don’t debate each other at the expense of gospel proclamation.” – R.C. on the Catholic counter-reformation

 

 

Pastoral Theology

“To pray for God to be glorified in your life is a dangerous prayer.” – Stuart Coulton, Pastoral Theology

“Beware the disjunct between the handling of God’s word for others, and practising God’s word for yourself.” – S.C.

“Small talk is addressing the 95% of a person’s life. If you are disinterested in 95% of a person’s life, then continue to hate small talk.” – S.C.

“What God does in you will shape what He does through you.” – S.C.

“[I] didn’t realise how dangerous Stuart’s prayer was until later in the year.” – student in the valley.

 

Biblical Theology

“In my class, the answer is usually Jesus, or context.” – Alan Thompson

“Here’s four approaches to the Bible:
1. Exegesis – what’s in the line?
2. Biblical Theology – what’s the timeline?
3. Systematic Theology – what’s the bottom line?
4. Historical Theology – what’s the church’s line?”

– adapted from A.T. explaining the role of biblical theology

New Testament Greek

“Learning Greek shouldn’t make you proud, but make you humble.” – Janet Riley

“Learning Greek is like Jacob wrestling with the angel. You need to hold on to that word and say: ‘I will not let you go until you bless me!'” – Rob Plummer on dailydoseofgreek.com

 

 

 

Old Testament Foundations

“We’re going to look at some of the greatest literature ever written.” – Kit Barker

“In time you’ll learn to use dictionaries, commentaries and journals. But nothing replaces a careful, repeated reflection of the text. Keep asking: what is God doing with this text then and now?” – K.B.

“The Pentateuch is meant to persuade you to obey – it’s not to be held at arm’s length. It’s meant to shape us, transform us into better men and women than we were.” – Geoff Harper

“Genesis records history, but it also critiques our own hearts. It’s less about what the sun is made of, but why it is there.” – G.H.

“There’s a diversity of views out there [on Genesis 1-2], but we are Christian. It’s very unwise to die on this hill. We need to love people who are different.” – G.H.

“To help us understand the literary artistry in the Tower of Babel story, let’s read The Gruffalo and see if you can spot any artistic devices.” – G.H.

“[In the Joseph story] Judah’s repentance is real. He’s willing to be Benjamin’s substitute, to be a slave so Benjamin can go free. We see the necessity for repentance to precede forgiveness. If we repent, we’ll get reconciliation.” – G.H.

“As Christians we need to be careful not to have an Islamic [i.e. dictated] view of Scripture. It’s OK if divine inspiration is more complex than we thought. We have a God who stands behind it.” – G.H.

“Let me make some bold statements: Leviticus is not just a relic of Israel’s history; it’s your history. It’s not redundant, but essential. You can’t understand Jesus unless you understand what’s in Leviticus: atonement, forgiveness, care for the foreigner, blood, sacrifice, holiness. So study Levicitus to understand Christ better.” – G.H.

“Leviticus is a wonderful evangelistic text. Lots of people are terrified about being unclean before a Holy God. Jesus is the one who makes us clean. Leviticus pushes us to talk about this.” – G.H.

“To remove wrath from the cross is foolishness. What then did he die for? Then there’s no sense in which God demonstrates his love.” – K.B.

“[The wrath of God] is not just an Old Testament problem. In fact, the NT is far more violent — in both the crucifixion [of Jesus] and in the unleashing of God’s fury on all who reject him.” – K.B.

“The more we understand and accept God’s wrath against rebellion, the more we appreciate the love of God and what Christ suffered.” – K.B.

“One generation is all it takes to lose the nation – to be worse than the culture you’re in. So we must pass on the life-giving words to the next generation.” – K.B. on Judges

 

Preaching Class, Principal’s Hour, Student Chapels

“The goal of preaching is not just to make smarter sinners. That’s what’s called dump truck preaching. The goal of preaching is to give God’s Word, to point people to their saviour, and live for his glory.” – Malcolm Gill

“It’s easy to do dump truck preaching. It’s much harder to be simple.” – M.G.

“‘My son’s birthday party’ – could be kids with party hats, or as it turns out, an adult son released from prison. Find out who you’re speaking to!” – M.G. on evaluating your audience

“In preaching you bring a meal out from the kitchen. You don’t take them into the kitchen and show them all the ingredients.” – M.G.

“If you’ve come to bible college, there probably is a Messiah complex about you. But our effectiveness in ministry is solely by God’s grace. The gospel gives us both confidence and humility in gospel ministry.” – Mark Adams, on 1 Cor 15

“Genesis 38 pictures a man in the midst of rebellion, confronted with his deception, then immediately acknowledging this wrongdoing, who becomes a new person. God transforms the hardest of hearts.” – Kit Barker

“People have a right to see in us a radical reflection of Jesus.” – S.C., on Matthew 5

“Jesus had nothing to add to the commandments except one thing: he kept them.” – S.C. quoting Dietrich Bonhoeffer

“The Old Testament is the gospel in bud; the New Testament is the gospel in flower.” – S.C. quoting JC Ryle

“As Bob Dylan sang, ‘You’re going to have to serve somebody.’ The question is, who? Who will you give your heart to?” – S.C., Matt 6:19-34

“There is a difference between having strong convictions and lacking respect for others with whom we disagree.” – S.C., on Matt 7:1-6

“One of the dangers of college is that our skillset outstrips our character. So begin with a command like this: don’t judge.” – S.C.

“Some advice for bible college graduates – don’t whine, don’t shine, and don’t recline.” – from an OT lecturer at Moore College

 

Other quotables

“Competence without character in Christian service is not just unattractive, but incredibly dangerous.” – S.C.

“Ministry Matters [hearing from missionaries every week] will help us lift our eyes away from parochialism and our tendency to only look locally.” – S.C.

“Some cultures don’t even have a word for guilt in their language. How do you explain Romans 3 to them?” – Richard Hibbert, on cross-cultural communication

“[Why are we missionaries in an unsafe country?] Safe is relative. You could be in Australia and get hit by a car. Is Christ worthy for West Asians to praise? If so then it is worth being here for the sake of the gospel.” – X+X, missionary family with young children